APA 6th referencing

A guide to APA referencing (6th edition)

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IMAGES, FIGURES AND TABLES

It is important to note that the guidelines available in the APA manual are relatively limited.  We have analysed  the guidelines closely, contacted the APA Style Editor and consulted the APA blog to provide the following guidance.
In this guide the word figure refers to all images including, Photographs, Paintings, Drawings, Charts, Diagrams, Graphs, Tables, etc
Any image used in your assignment requires a caption. If the image is not your own work it also requires an intext citation to the original source.

 

A caption should include

  • The word Figure (with a capital letter and in italics)
  • A number (from 1, in numerical order)
  • A title for the figure or brief description of the work
  • An in text citation for the reference of the source (if not your own work), which includes the Author(s), date and page number for the source, i.e. (Smith, 2010, p.13)

 

If you got the image from

  • A BOOK, reference it as you would a quotation from a book
  • A JOURNAL, reference as you would a quotation from a journal
  • A WEB PAGE, reference it as you would a quotation from a web page

 

Image etc. taken from a book source

Figure 1. Social distances of animals (Fowler, 2008, p. 13)

Reference

Fowler, M. (2008). Restraint and handing of wild and domestic animals (3rd ed.). Ames, IA: Wiley Blackwell.

 

Image taken from a journal

Figure 2. Male holotye of Hypsiboas gladiator (Kholer et al., 2010, p. 584).

Reference

Kohler, J., Koscinski, D., Padial, J. M., Chaparro, J. C., Handford, P., Lougheed, S. C., & Riva, I. (2010). Systematics of Andean gladiator frogs of the Hypsiboas pulchellus species groug (Annuar, Hylidae). Zoologica Scripta, 39(6), 572-590. doi:10.111/j.1463-6409.2010.00448.x 

 

Image taken from the internet

Figure 3. Fantail vector (McMillan, 2009).

Reference

McMillan, T. (2009). Fantail vector. Retrieved from http://www.kiwiwise.co.nz/photo/fantail-vector

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Things to remember

Authors' names : Authors names should always be Surname, Initial. Initial.  e.g. Smith, L. M.

 

Multiple authors: The same rules apply as for books.

 

Italics :

For a book only the book title should be in italics

For a journal only the journal title and the volume number should be in intalics

For a web page there should be no italics used

 

Capitalization :

For a book : The first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle.  Everything else should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals.

For a journal : For an article title, the first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle.  Everything else in the article title should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals. For a journal title, all major words need to be capitalized.

For a web page : The first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle.  Everything else should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals.

 

Splitting a URL : If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems.

 

Secondary Sources : You can only reference information that you have actually seen.  If that book or journal article quotes another piece of work which you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.

For example you read a book by Sandvoss, in which he quotes Taylor "Ian Taylor's influential analysis (1971) in which he identifies hooliganism as a response to social control..."

If you have not read the item by Taylor you would reference the Sandvoss book.

Sandvoss, C. (2003). A game of two halves: Football, television and globalization. London: Routledge.

In text citation (as cited in Sandvoss, 2003, p. 2)