APA 6th referencing

A guide to APA referencing (6th edition)

APA Style

The American Psychological Association referencing style is known as an "author-date" style because the author is given first, followed by the date and other information when citing in the text and in the reference list.

In-text citations

 

When using another's ideas or words in your assignment or project, you should include an in-text citation to the original work.

Example of a direct quote (of fewer than 40 words)
Lampkin (1990) points out that good root storage "depends on minimising handling damage, soil and top contamination and poor tapping" (p. 409).

Keegan and Green (2013) explains "a free trade area (FTA) is formed when two or more countries agree to eliminate tarriffs and other barriers that restrict trade" (p. 69).

OR

Good root storage "depends on minimising handling damage, soil and top contamination and poor tapping" (Lampkin, 1990, p. 409).

 "A free trade area (FTA) is formed when two or more countries agree to eliminate tarriffs and other barriers that restrict trade" (Keegan & Green, 2013, p. 69).

 

Example of in-text citations where different authors have the same surname
If you use references where two different primary authors have the same surname you need to include the initials of the primary author in all in-text citations, even if the dates of the publications are different.

E.g. To ensure that root storage is good you should handle them as little a possible to prevent damage, poor tapping or contamination of the soil (R. H. Lampkin, 1990, p. 409).

&

When planting material that has been stored ensure that the roots are in good condition so as to maximise the chances of good growth (P. T. Lampkin & Tschopt, 2007, p. 15).

Example of an indirect quote or parapharse
If you paraphrase (use your own words) to explain something you have read. Use of the page numbers in the in-text citation is optional, please ask your lecturer if you need to use a page number when paraphrasing.

To ensure that root storage is good you should handle them as little a possible to prevent damage, poor tapping or contamination of the soil (Lampkin, 1990, p. 409).

OR

To ensure that root storage is good you should handle them as little a possible to prevent damage, poor tapping or contamination of the soil (Lampkin, 1990).

Example of a quote from an item that does not have page numbers
If you are quoting from an item that does not have page numbers eg. a web page or html file, you should state which paragraph the quote comes from.

Lampkin (1990) points out that good root storage "depends on minimising handling damage, soil and top contamination and poor tapping" (para. 409).

 

Reference List

 At the end of your assignment, essay or project you are required to include a reference list containing the full details of each source. The list should be in alphabetical order, according to author surname or ogranistions name. It needs to include the author/editor, date, title and publication information. If a reference goes over more than one line, the second and subsequent lines must be indented five spaces.

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