MLA Referencing


At the end of your assignment, essay or project you are required to include a reference list containing the full details of each source. The list should be in alphabetical order and include the author/editor, date, title and publication information. References over one line long should use a hanging indent to indent the second and following lines.


One Author

Stanley-Baker, Joan. Japanese Art. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd, 2000. Print.

In-text citation  (Stanley-Baker 96).


Two or Three Authors

Press, Frank and Raymond Siever. Understanding Earth. 2nd ed. New York:

     W. H. Freedman and Company, 1998. Print.

In-text citation (Press and Siever 43)


Four or More Authors

Illston, John M., et al. Concrete, Timber, and Metals : The Nature and Behaviour

     of Structured Materials. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1979. Print.

In-text citation (Illston 53)


Book with Corporate Author

Occupational Safety & Health Service. A Practical Guide and Workbook for

     Completing a MOSHH Assessment in Your Workplace : Chemical Safety.

     Wellington, N.Z: Occupational Safety & Health Service, Department of 

     Labour, 1997. Print.

In-text citation (Occupational Safety & Health 11)


Edited Book

Saxton, Dolores F, ed. Comprehensive Review of Nursing in NCLEX-RN. 16th ed.

     St Louis, MO: Mosby, 1999. Print.

In text citation (Saxton 26)


Chapter from an Edited Book

Browne, Tom J. "The Role of Geographical Information Systems

     in Hydrology." Sediment and Water Quality in River Catchments.

     Ed. Ian Foster, Angela Burnel and Bruce Webb. Chichester: John

     Wiley & Sons, 1995. 33-48. Print.

In text citation (Browne 44)


Electronic Books

A book from a database


Knutson, Joan. Project Management for Business Professionals : A

     Comprehensive Guide. New York: Wiley, 2001. Ebrary Database. Web.

      4 Aug. 2009.

In text citation (Knutson 15).


A book from the internet

Arnold, Stephen E. The Google Legacy : How Google's Internet Search is

     Transforming Application Software. Tetbury: Infonortics, 2005. Google

     Book Search. Web. 4 Aug. 2009.

In text citation (Arnold)

Need More Help!

For more help contact Te Puna Ako Learning Centre 

Mt Albert Campus Tel 09 815 4321 Ext. 8611.

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Northern Campus Tel 09 815 4321 Ext. 5623.

Things to remember

Authors' names :

1st Author should be referenced as Surname, First name Middle name  e.g.  Porter, Katherine Anne

Initials should only be used if that is what appears on the title page e.g. Rowling, J. K.

2nd and 3rd Authors should be referenced First name Middle name Surname e.g.

Press, Frank and Raymond Siever


Editors' names : If you are referencing the whole of an edited book then use the same rules as the for authors' names, above.

However if you are referencing a chapter of an edited book the editors' name should be First name Middle name Surname. e.g.

Ed. Ian Foster, Angela Burnel and Bruce Webb


Italics : Book titles should be in italics.  If you are referencing a chapter in a book, the title of the chapter should not be in italics. 

If you are referencing an electronic book from a subscription database or website, the database or website name should be in italics.


Capitalization : All the major words of a book and a chapter title should be capitalized.


URL :  URLs do not need to be included in your reference unless you do not think the item could be found easily through a web search. If you do include a URL put it in angled brackets. If you need to split it over two lines, only split at a slash (/) e.g.




Format : MLA requires the type of format you accessed the material in to be included in the reference. 

If you are using a hardcopy of a book put Print.

If you have accessed the book via the internet or a subscription database put Web.


Secondary Sources : You can only reference information that you have actually seen.  If that book or journal article quotes another piece of work which you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.

For example you read a book by Sandvoss, in which he quotes Taylor: "Ian Taylor's influential analysis (1971) in which he identifies hooliganism as a response to social control..."

If you have not read the item by Taylor you would reference the Sandvoss book.

Sandvoss, Cornel. A Game of Two Halves: Football, Television and Globalization. London: Routledge. 2003. Print.

In text citation (qtd. in Sandvoss 2)