Chicago Referencing

Information not known

While referencing you will come across material that has some of the normal referencing elements missing, ie no date of publication, no author etc.  When this happens you may need to change your reference slightly.  Below are some examples of what you may need to do.

 

No Author/Editor 

Footnote

There and Back Again: A Hobbit's Tale (Hobbiton: The Shire Press, 1950), 30

Bibilography

There and Back Again: A Hobbit's Tale. Hobbiton: The Shire Press, 1950

 

No Publication Date

Footnote 

Bilbo Baggins, There and Back Again: A Hobbit's Tale, (Hobbiton: Shire Press, n.d.), 30

Bibliography

Baggins, Bilbo. There and Back Again: A Hobbit's Tale. Hobbiton: Shire Press, n.d. 

 

No Place of Publication

Footnote 

Bilbo Baggins, There and Back Again: A Hobbit's Tale, (n.p.: Shire Press, 1950), 30

Bibliography

Baggins, Bilbo. There and Back Again: A Hobbit's Tale. n.p.: Shire Press, 1950.

 

No Publisher's Details

Footnote  

Bilbo Baggins, There and Back Again: A Hobbit's Tale, (Hobbiton, 1950), 30

Bibliography

Baggins, Bilbo. There and Back Again: A Hobbit's Tale. Hobbiton, 1950. 

 

 

 

 

Things to remember

Authors' names :

NotesAll authors' names should be Name, Initial, Surname  e.g. Eliza T. Dresang.

Bibliography :  First author should be inverted as Surname, Name Name e.g.  Burnett, Kathleen. Additional authors should be Name, Name, Surname  e.g. Burnett, Kathleen and Eliza T. Dresang.

 

Editors' names : If you are referencing the whole book, the format for the editors' names should be the same as for an author in both notes and bibliographies.  If however you are referencing a chapter of an edited book the editors' name should be Name Name Surname. eg. edited by Paul M. Angle and Mary Stewart van Leeuwen 

 

Italics : Only the book title should be in italics.  If you are referencing a chapter in a book, the title of the chapter should not be in italics but should be surrounded by quote marks "....".

 

Capitalization : All major words in titles and subtitles should be capitalized.

 

Splitting a URL : If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems.

 

Secondary Sources : You can only reference information that you have actually seen.  If that book or journal article quotes another piece of work which you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.

For example you read a book by Sandvoss, in which he quotes Jenkins:  "Harry Jenkins states "Recent accounts of fandom in the field of cultural studies have stressed the often negative and hostile representation of fan culture in the mass media."

 

Footnote: 

Harry Jenkins, Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture, (New York: Routledge, 1992), 13, quoted in Cornel Sandvoss, A Game of Two Halves: Football, Television and Globalization, (New York: Routlege, 2003), 16.

 

Bibliography:  

Jenkins, Harry. Textual Poachers: Television Fans and

     Participatory Culture, 13. New York: Routledge, 1992.

     Quoted in Cornell Sandvoss, A Game of Two Halves:

     Football, Television and Globalization. New York:

     Routledge, 2003, 16.