Chicago Referencing

How to cite second and subsequent references to the same item

Consecutive references:

When you are referencing the same source in two (or more) footnotes the second and subsequent references should be entered as "Ibid." and the page number for the relevant footnote.  Use "Ibid." without any page number if the page is the same as the previous reference.

Example footnotes:

1. Stephen Marshall, Cities, Design and Evolution (Abingdon, U.K.: Routledge, 2009), 69.

2. Ibid., 72.

 

Nonconsecutive references:

When referring to a previously cited work, but with other references intervening, use a shortened reference. This is only the author's/editor's last name and a shortened form of the title.  Titles of four or less words are not shortened. 

Example footnotes:

1. Stephen Marshall, Cities, Design and Evolution (Abingdon, U.K.: Routledge, 2009), 69.

2. Deidre Brown, Maori Architecture: From Fale to Wharenui and Beyond (Auckland, N.Z.: Raupo, 2009), 56.

3. Marshall, Cities, Design, 72.

Several books by the same author in the bibliography                                               
Where your bibliography contains two or more works by the same author entries are arranged alphabetically by title (leading definite/indefinite articles being ignored) under the author's name.  The author's name is replaced in the second and subsequent entries by six hyphens:

Jencks, Charles and Edwin Heathcote. The Architecture of Hope: Maggie's Cancer Caring Centres. London: Frances Lincoln, 2010.

------. Can Architecture Affect Your Health? Arnhem, The Netherlands: Sikkens Foundation and ArtEZ Press, 2012.

------. The Scottish Parliament. London: Scala Publishers, 2005.