Chicago Referencing

Chicago Style

Unitec uses the Chicago style called the notes system, or Chicago 16th A.  It involves the use of footnotes and a bibliography.

Place a footnote at the bottom of the page on which your referenced idea appears. Footnotes usually contain page number(s) so anyone reading your work can easily find the quote, paraphrase or idea which you are referencing.

If you reference the same source more than once, use a shortened footnote. Some examples are given on this guide. For more explanation, see Repetition of References.

At the end of your assignment, essay or project is a bibliography containing the full details of each source. The list should be in alphabetical order and include the author/editor, date, title and publication information. References over one line long should use a hanging indent to indent the second and following lines. 

Footnotes

When using another's ideas or words in your assignment or project, you should include a footnote citation to the original work. Footnotes are numbered consecutively (from 1....) within the text, and the footnote itself appears at the bottom of the page containing the reference.
Each individual footnote should be indented on the first line.

 Example of a direct quote (of fewer than 40 words)

 Text: David Watkins said " The two other principle buildings on the Acropolis, the Propylaea and the Erichtheion"1...

 Footnote: 1. David Watkins, A History of Western Architecture, 2nd ed. (London: Laurence King, 1996), 25.

 

Example of a long direct quote (more than 40 words)

Long direct quotations should be introduced by an informative sentence, usually followed by a colon and indented 5 spaces from the left margin.  Indenting the text means quotation marks are not required.

 Text:  Lefaivre and Tzonis state:

                    The first steps towards a new approach of conceiving cities occurred during the first phase of the revolution of

               modern architecture in the works of Christine de Pisan (c. 1410), Leon Battista Alberti (1440-1472, 1485),

               Filarete (1451-46) and Francesco di Girorgio Martin (1474-1482).2

 Footnote: 2. Laine Lefaivre and Alexander Tzonis, The Emergence of Modern Architecture: A Documentary History from 1000 to 1810, (London: Routlege, 2004), 25.

 

Example of an indirect quote (an indirect quote is when you summarize or paraphrase using your own words)

 Text:  According to Christoph Affentranger, wood panel type products were not invented until the early 20th century.3

 Footnote:    3. Christoph Affentranger, "Building Simply with Wood," in Building Simply, ed. Christian Schittich

(Birkhauser: Institut für Internationale Architektur-Dokumentation, 2005), 30.

 

Bibliography

At the end of your assignment, essay or project you are required to include a bibliography containing the full details of each work you have cited in your notes as well as any work that was consulted but not cited. The list should be in alphabetical order and include the author/editor, date, title and publication information.  The first line of the reference should be flush with the margin.  Second and subsequent lines should be indented.

Bibliography example

Affentranger, Christoph. "Building Simply with Wood." In Building Simply, edited by Christian Schittich, 27-36.    

    Birkhauser: Institut für Internationale Architektur-Dokumentation, 2005.


Lefaivre, Laine, and Alexander Tzonis. The Emergence of Modern Architecture: A Documentary History from 1000 to    

    1810. London: Routledge, 2004.


Watkins, David. A History of Western Architecture. 2nd ed. London: Laurence King, 1996.

Style Guides & Books Available in the Library

Need further help?

Try some of these online guides if you need further help.

Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide [University of Chicago Press]

Chicago Manual of Style Guide [University of Arizona Libraries]

Chicago Style [Murdoch University]