Chicago Referencing

Things to remember

Authors' names :

NotesAll authors' names should be Name, Initial, Surname  e.g. Eliza T. Dresang.

Bibliography :  First author should be inverted as Surname, Name Name e.g.  Burnett, Kathleen.  Additional authors should be Name, Name, Surname  e.g. Burnett, Kathleen and Eliza T. Dresang.

 

Italics : Only the journal title should be in italics.  The article title should not be in italics but should be surrounded by quote marks "....".

 

Capitalization : All major words in article titles, subtitles and journal titles should be capitalized.

 

Splitting a URL : If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems.

 

Secondary Sources : You can only reference information that you have actually seen.  If that book or journal article quotes another piece of work which you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.

For example you read a book by Sandvoss, in which he quotes Jenkins:  "Harry Jenkins states "Recent accounts of fandom in the field of cultural studies have stressed the often negative and hostile representation of fan culture in the mass media."

 

Footnote: 

Harry Jenkins, Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture, (New York: Routledge, 1992), 13, quoted in Cornel Sandvoss, A Game of Two Halves: Football, Television and Globalization, (New York: Routlege, 2003), 16.

 

Bibliography:  

Jenkins, Harry. Textual Poachers: Television Fans and

     Participatory Culture, 13. New York: Routledge, 1992.

     Quoted in Cornell Sandvoss, A Game of Two Halves:

     Football, Television and Globalization. New York:

     Routledge, 2003, 16.

 

Journal Articles


This page gives examples of how to reference print and electronic journals.

ARTICLES FROM A PRINT JOURNAL


Volume, issue and year are important.

Footnote 

  Peter Ache and Micha Fedrowitz, "The Development of Co-Housing Initiatives in Germany," Built Environment 38, no. 3 (2012): 396.

Bibliography

Ache, Peter and Micha Fedrowitz. "The Development of Co-Housing Initiatives

    in Germany." Built Environment 38, no. 3 (2012): 395-412.

 

ELECTRONIC JOURNAL ARTICLE FROM A SUBSCRIPTION DATABASE

  • There is no need to give an access date if you can find either a stable URL or preferably a DOI, or unless your lecturere requests you do so.
  • A DOI is a permanent ID that, when appended to http://dx.doi.org/ in the address bar of an Internet browser, will lead to the source.
  • If this is not available use a stable URL. 
  • If neither of these is available, you can give an access date, or treat as a print journal. 
  • The URL/DOI are the last piece of information.

Footnote - article with DOI


   1. Philip Davies and Mohamed Osmani, "Low Carbon Housing refurbishment Challenges and Incentives: Architect's Perspectives," Building and Environment 46, no. 8 (2011): 1691-1698, doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2011.02.011.

Footnote - stable URL

   2. Jin Baek, "Shintai and the Empty Cross: Tadao Ando's Church of the Light," Architectural Theory Review 14, no.1 (2009): pp.56-70, http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4385A4DB962A8109213E.

Bibliography

Baek, Jin. "Shintai and the Empty Cross: Tadao Ando's Church of the Light."

   Architectural Theory Review 14, no. 1 (2009): 56-70. 

   http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4385A4DB962A8109213E

Davies, Philip and Mohamed Osmani. "Low Carbon Housing Refurbishment

   Challenges and Incentives: Architect's Perspectives." Building and

   Environment 46, no. 8 (2011): 1691-1698. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2011.02.011.

 

ARTICLE FROM A WEB JOURNAL (not a database)

Footnote

   Ute Poerschke and Susanne Gampfer, "Environmentally Conscious Architecture: Local–Global, Traditional–Innovative, and Cultural Challenges," Buildings 3, no. 4 (2013): 766-70, doi:10.3390/buildings3040766.

Bibliography

Poerschke, Ute and Susanne Gampfer. "Environmentally Conscious Architecture:

   Local–Global, Traditional–Innovative, and Cultural Challenges." Buildings 3, no. 4

   (2013): 766-70. doi:10.3390/buildings3040766.